This volume consists of 9 articles with 28 authors from 3universities/institutions in Indonesia namely: universitas Dharma Andalas, Universitas Andalas, UIN SUSKA RIAU.

 Jurnal Hasi Penelitian Dan Pengkajian Ilmiah Eksakta - JPPIE would like to express my deepest gratitude to all the authors who have sent their best articles to be published in JPPIE

Published: 2022-01-25